Biochemistry and histology

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Introduction to Biochemistry:
a) Molecular basis of life,
b) a molecule of water,
c) a biologically important elements,
d) Biological macromolecules.

Introduction to cell biology:
e) the first descriptions of the cells,
f) characteristics of the living organisms,
g) the chemical composition of the cells.

Basics of molecular biology:
h) genes and gene expression,
i) a core and organization of chromatin,
j) Ribosomes and protein synthesis.

Cell proliferation: cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis.

Structure and function of cell membranes:
a) membrane transport (passive transport, active transport)
b) The basics of cell excitability (membrane potential, action potential and ion channels, electrical signals, depolarization and hyperpolarization of the cell membrane).

Cellular organelles (endomembrane), sorting and transport of proteins in the cell.

Interactions between cells and environment (cellular communication): intercellular connections and communications.

Structure and function of the cytoskeleton: epithelium, and muscle cells.

Mitochondria and metabolism in the cell:
a) Carbohydrate metabolism,
b) lipid metabolism,
c) The metabolism of proteins.

Introduction to histology: organization of vertebrate tissues: preparation of histological slides, observation of different cell types and organization of tissues (understanding the structural composition of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, cartilage); understanding the structural composition of the tissues of the human body and understanding their changes in diseases and injuries.